Travel Vaccination

Preparing for a trip goes beyond the packing list. Vaccination protects travellers from contracting chronic illnesses and infections like Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B.

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Did you know?

What is Hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is a viral infection of the liver that can cause mild to severe illness1.

People at risk of Hepatitis A:

People at risk of Hepatitis A

What is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver that can cause short (acute), long-term (chronic) disease and Hepatitis B related liver cancer7.

People at risk of Hepatitis B7,8:

People at risk of Hepatitis B

Myths vs Facts

Myth:

I won't get Hepatitis A because I don't eat cockles.

Fact:

Hepatitis A is not only transmitted via cockles and shellfish. Foods you should be aware of are: salads, raw fruit & berries, raw vegetables and partially cooked food3,10. Drinking water, ice cubes and even swimming pool water are all risks to watch out for if you haven't been immunized3,10,11.

Myth:

I am not a risk of Hepatitis B because I have only one sexual partner.

Fact:

Apart from sexual transmission, you can become infected with Hepatitis B during medical or dental procedures, and cosmetic beauty treatments, such as manicures, pedicures, body piercing and tattoos if contaminated or unsterilised equipment is used7.

Symptoms

Hepatitis A and Its Symptoms

The incubation period of hepatitis A is usually 14-28 days. Symptoms may include1:

Hepatitis A and Its Symptoms

Hepatitis B and Its Symptoms

Most people do not experience any symptoms during the acute infection, however short-term symptoms can last several weeks, and can include7:

Hepatitis B and Its Symptoms

How it spreads

How can you get Hepatitis A?

The virus can be transmitted through:

How can you get Hepatitis A

How can you get Hepatitis B?

People at risk of Hepatitis B are everyone from the very young to the very old, including2,7:

How can you get Hepatitis B?

Answer: All of the above

You can become infected with Hepatitis B during medical or dental procedures, and cosmetic beauty treatments, such as manicures, pedicures, body piercing and tattoos if contaminated or unsterilised equipment is used7. Hepatitis B can also spread during sexual contact with an infected partner or from an infected mother to her baby during birth2.

To minimise your risk of Hepatitis A and B infections, avoid situations that put you at risk.

Impact on health

What is the impact of Hepatitis A?

How can you get Hepatitis A

What is the impact of Hepatitis B?

How can you get Hepatitis B

Get protected

What can you do to protect against Hepatitis A?

What can you do to protect against Hepatitis A

What can you do to protect against Hepatitis B?

What can you do to protect against Hepatitis B

References

  • World Health Organization (WHO). Factsheet 328 – Hepatitis A. Available at: http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-a#; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • World Health Organization (WHO). Weekly Epidemiological Record No. 28-29, 2012. Available at: http://www.who.int/wer/2012/wer8728_29/en/; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • NHS Choices. Hepatitis A. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hepatitis-a/; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • Lee et al. (2011). Changing Epidemiological Patterns of Hepatitis A Infection in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2011; 40:439-47
  • Jacobsen KH, Wiersma ST. Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence by age and world region, 1990 and 2005. Vaccine, 2010;28:6653-7
  • HealthHub Website. Available at: https://www.healthhub.sg/a-z/diseases-and-conditions/46/HepatitisA; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • World Health Organization (WHO). Hepatitis B Factsheet N204. Available at: http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hbv/bfaq.htm; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • MOH website. Available at: https://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/home/pressRoom/pressRoomItemRelease/2001/hepatitis_B_immunisation_programme.html; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • CDC. Hepatitis A. Available at: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/hepatitis-a; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • WHO. Chapter 3. Microbiological Hazards. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/bathing/recreaII-intro.pdf; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • Mahoney, F et al. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with swimming in a public pool. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1992; 165(4):613-8.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). Immunisation, Vaccines and Biologicals. Hepatitis A. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/hepatitisA/en/; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • Brundage. S, Fitzpatrick. A. (2006). Hepatitis A. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73:2162-8, 2169-70.
  • Van Damme P, Chlibek R, Keefle EB. Hepatitis A and B Vaccination in Elderly Travellers. European Gastroenterology & Hepatology Review. 2011;7:2-10
  • HPB website. Available at: https://www.healthhub.sg/a-z/diseases-and-conditions/48/HepatitisB; Last accessed Jun 2018
  • HPB website. Available at: http://www.healthhub.sg/sites/assets/Assets/PDFs/HPB/Older%20Adult/WhatIsHepatitisB07.pdf
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